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Oxford Summer Session:

Pre-workshop activity
Welcome to the Oxford Summer Workshop by Dr Anthony Basiel. We will do a series of interesting tasks, challenges and games to stretch your imagination and develop your knowledge and skills.

So, to start the session we want to form a common language and understanding. Your task is to scroll down this webpage to enter your definition of ‘Knowledge’ in the form at the bottom of the page. You can see some other samples listed. Please note: There is no ‘right’ answer. We want your perspective on what knowledge is to add to this resource. Have fun.
Cheers, Anthony


18th European Conference on e-Learning ECEL 2019

Below you can find samples of my key note speaker presentation for Copenhagen in 2019. Please contact me on abasiel@gmail.com if you would like me to do a presentation for you or your organisation.


Please see the Flash recording  (39 minutes) of the keynote at: https://tinyurl.com/ECEL2019

YouTube recordings: (each about 15 minutes)
Part 1: https://youtu.be/ppgRdi4fqvg
Part 2: https://youtu.be/8EyhUYW3TRU
Part 3: https://youtu.be/nwKDrR2GPvo

The 360* Immersive Fishbowl Webinar Design is explained at:
The 360* sample video is at
: https://youtu.be/xAXpwJ_eiyo


Please see my Flash recording of how I have used my blended learning model (PAP) Pre-At-Post design.
and You can download a short essay on: Forwards Reflections on AR (augmented reality) Learning (Aug. ’18) Chris-SkillSoft-Blog-Basiel-Aug’18

Knowledge is

Welcome to this discussion area from a series of conferences I have done. We invite you to add your definition of what knowledge is from your perspective by scrolling down the page to the web form on the bottom of the page.
There is no single ‘right answer’, so please share your academic understanding or your tacit ‘hands-on’ experience. Looking forward to your contributions.

See the YouTube video at: https://youtu.be/9LLRohcdVIU
Cheers, Dr Anthony ‘Skip’ Basiel


1. MYLA P. ADIATON - 19/10/2021

Knowledge is something that satisfied one’s query. It is the ultimate permanent fact achieved after undergoing three phases of processes. First Phase is Pre-knowledge, this is when someone does not yet know anything about the fact. Knowledge, this is when someone is being told or taught by the verifiable fact. Permanent Knowledge, this is when someone has verified that fact which made it for him/her an ultimate verified fact.

abasiel - 20/10/2021

Thanks for being the first comment Myla. Your epistemology sees knowledge as content or facts. I call this ‘fuzzy facts’ as they may evolve due to new information. Knowledge can also be a process. Tacit knowledge is made from experience. This may build emotional intelligence. (Gardner 1983). So knowledge, according to the Constructivist, is meaning making that occurs in our minds. Not an external artifact.

2. Dr Anthony 'Skip' Basiel - 19/10/2021

Hello Webinar Conference Delegates – Please enter your perspective on what knowledge means in your context at the bottom of the thread. Cheers – Dr Anthony ‘Skip’ Basiel

3. Dr Advitya Kamberia - 16/12/2019

Knowledge= Know + Ledge= Prounce it Know= No= Means Which cant be seen only felt and Ledge= can be shown= means something which can be felt along with being legitimatized

abasiel - 16/12/2019

Good point Advitya. You can have ‘multiple intelligence’. Such as emotional knowledge.

4. abasiel - 07/11/2019

Please see the Flash recording of the keynote at: https://tinyurl.com/ECEL2019

5. abasiel - 07/11/2019

Here is the link to the Conference keynote text discussion. I have added some of my comments. Cheers – Anthony

6. Claes Weise Schiermer Mørkeberg - 07/11/2019

The explicit and tacit experience of living as a human subject in the physical and spiritual world that filters and categorizes impressions and regulates actions

abasiel - 07/11/2019

Thanks Claes for this contribution. I agree about the use of knowledge as an important element. This can evolve into a long-term memory and real-world application. Can this become wisdom?

7. Bronwyn Swartz - 06/11/2019

Hi Anthony.
In my humble opinion, “knowledge” is merely information – it is simply data. I teach statistics. Referring to my own context, without the skills to ‘process’ that data, that is all that knowledge is = information

abasiel - 14/11/2019

Hi Bronwyn – I agree that it all starts as ‘0s’ and ‘1s’….. (binary data representation), but once processed it can become so much more.

8. Carina Sjödin - 06/11/2019

Knowledge is to be developed in order to be relevant and co-create value.

abasiel - 14/11/2019

Yes Carina – I say, ‘Context is King! – Not content.’

9. Ives Van Haute - 06/11/2019

Knowledge is the ability to notify and register interesting facts in order to develop itself continuously

abasiel - 06/11/2019

Thanks for the contribution Ives. I would like to develop your idea of continuously developing facts. I call them ‘fuzzy facts’ because the information is dynamic and not fixed. The ‘facts’ are fuzzy because they can change as new data is updated. Cheers, Anthony

abasiel - 09/12/2020

But Ives, what if the facts are ‘fuzzy’?

10. Anders Øgaard - 04/11/2019

Morten Philipps put it right.

abasiel - 06/11/2019

So Anders, are you a supporter of Constructivist learning theory?
My research has developed ‘web-constructivism’.

11. Nuria - 04/11/2019

I understand knowledge as the ability to find and use (or learning to use) the information that you need for a specific purpose. I used to think of knowledge as “things you know”, but I now think of it as the skill that allows you to find out about “those things” and how they can be applied.
My objectives are: being able to identify some game design features and to understand how they could be used in pedagogical design.

abasiel - 06/11/2019

Thanks Nuria for your addition to our discussion. I think of learning more as a process or a dynamic event, rather than content or facts/information to be transmitted. And, as you say, it is important to be able to apply and use the knowledge.

12. Morten Philipps - 30/10/2019

An internal construction of an external phenomenon – meaning the ability to understand or act appropriately

abasiel - 31/10/2019

Hmmm… Morten, I like your internal/external perspective. This is an area I hope we will explore together when we discuss my ‘immersive fishbowl webinar design’. See https://abasiel.wordpress.com/elearning-r-d/
Cheers, Anthony

13. Karla Phlypo - 30/10/2019

Knowledge is data, context, with inference. The next step is wisdom which is inference with experience. Somewhere in all this is also intuition which is a knowing that stems a little from the wisdom you experience. Knowledge should contain a critical and systems thinking element. My background is Knowledge Management and I tend to stay on the tacit and explicit development of knowledge and less on social networking aspects. So I am very interested in how knowledge is constructed. I work in a PhD program and this is a key aspect that students need to develop. Not just acquiring knowledge but the creation and development and expansion of knowledge.

abasiel - 31/10/2019

Wow Karla – you have identified some very interesting elements with your answer about knowledge.

It is valuable that you have highlighted areas other than abstract or academic/intellectual views of knowledge.

Taking an ‘A Posteriori’* approach, as you have, opens new avenues to explore. Now my question to you is, ‘How does this change for ‘virtual knowledge’? Or does it?

* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_priori_and_a_posteriori
* https://www.iep.utm.edu/apriori/

Karla Phlypo - 07/11/2019

Is it possible to experience learning from those levels in and elearning environment? I think the more difficult aspect is to experience knowing in an E-learning environment. The development of ones wisdom. Inductive reasoning is helpful but also does not always provide the deepening of knowledge. Inference considers inductive and deductive reasoning building truth is never easy and usually this is built without experience or as I suggest wisdom. How do you enable building the experience needed to be able to tell when a relative truth is reached. Oh oh I am waxing on about thinking hahaha.

We have become pretty good at “rinse and repeat’ but less capable at furthering deeper understanding mostly in my estimation because we tend to lead those to the knowledge. If Wisdom is data, inference, experience as educators we need to let at the PhD level experience the investigation process. Sometimes what has been the established truth is not at all the truth and in advanced education it is important to read, synthesize experience what we are trying to learn. I have know Idea if I answered your question but in a nut shell is it possible to teach that in an online environment It is possible but it is difficult.

14. abasiel - 27/10/2019

Thanks for your contribution Dhuha. Your insight on transferable skills is valuable. Does that make ‘transferable knowledge ‘ the application of learning… wisdom?

Dhuha Al-Shaikhli - 07/11/2019

Yes, wisdom is a theoretical aspect. But also, knowledge is something that you can apply more tangibly in different skills where you can adjust it and reuse it in different environments. Such as research skills, math problem solving which you can relate it to a more complicated algorithmic problem.

15. Dhuha Al-Shaikhli - 25/10/2019

Knowledge is a construct of information which allows you to apply it as a skill. The construct is built through social context; any context (reading, listening, collaborating the information). The knowledge construct is formed based on related, correcting, and appending information where they interrelate with each other to form knowledge.
A powerful type of knowledge is when you can transfer the learned skill from one environment to another.
My learning objectives are:
1. Learn about the effective usage of social media in HE
2. Learn a new method of capturing student interaction with SM for learning purposes
3. Learn about pedagogy implementation on LMS
Looking forward to building new knowledge in this conference

16. Xeh - 25/10/2019

I am a PhD in Digital Humanities and Communication Sciences, and a filmmaker. From a very personal point of view, knowledge is the engine of life. When I say knowledge I understand all kind of abstract and perceptive memories that cells (not only human) archive. This perceptive memory allows life to evolve. Knowledge is the recognition of the world, and its translation into the individual’s experience.

For humans, the perceptive memories of the world, its facts and objects, become thought, which gets enhanced and enriched with time, experience, art and research. Knowledge becomes therefore a network of related objects, events, images, sounds, smells, haptic perceptions, strings of codes (numbers, words, etc), that is in constant re-organization as it is stimulated by external -or internal- inputs. Knowledge is not a static cluster of information, but a living entity that creates this “consensual hallucination” that the world is for every living being on earth. According to this consensus, sender(s) and receptor(s), behave, communicate and operate.

Learning Objectives:
1. To learn how to use VR/AR in education through concrete activities and examples.
2. To use game strategies in class.
3. To understand better how learning groups work.

Dr Anthony 'Skip' Basiel - 25/10/2019

Well done Xeh. You are the first to contribute to our conference discussion. Please see my R&D on film/video for teaching at: https://abasiel.wordpress.com/elearn/

Social Constructivists may agree with your perspective on knowledge as they see meaning making in the mind of the learner, not as a ‘truth that is out there’.

Please see below some other views that may provide fuel for thought. Cheers, Anthony

17. Andrew - 19/03/2018

For me, knowledge is understanding something previously learnt, and is especially useful in the context of knowing how to apply data or a process to achieve a desired outcome.

abasiel - 20/03/2018

Tacit knowledge can be very powerful. – Anthony

abasiel - 20/03/2018

I agree – it is the application of the knowledge that gives it meaning. Context is king! – Anthony

18. Tom Barrance - 18/03/2018

Knowledge is described by Lyotard as knowing “how to listen” and “how to live”. Knowledge can’t be reduced to science nor simply the result of learning, rather it’s the insight into an idea gained from another’s truth. The legitimacy of the idea is agreed through a process of cultural negotiation.

I am hoping that the workshop will allow us to see how games and play allow an exploration of alternatives that might otherwise be overlooked.

abasiel - 20/03/2018

Interesting Tom. This way of meaning making is powerful and can be a global opportunity. – Anthony

19. sallybean - 18/03/2018

Very hard to write briefly on a complex topic! Knowledge for me is a messy mixture of facts, concepts, principles, mental models, theories and experiences, which can hopefully be justified.
I rather like some of the principles of KM that Dave Snowden lists here,
“We only know what we know when we need to know it”
“We always know more than we can say, and we will always say more than we can write down.”
However those principles don’t really address the question of how we tackle the problem of being sure that we are really sharing meaning, when trying to share knowledge. (Steve Whitla is giving a talk about this at the conference on Wednesday)
I like to use Novak’s concept maps as a tool for testing my own understanding of a subject and sharing it with others.

abasiel - 20/03/2018

Sally – Thanks for your contribution to our knowledge. Please expand on our concept map example. – Anthony

20. Steve Hutchings - 15/03/2018

I always think of the ‘Knowledge’ quote that is on the side of the British Library; “Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it [Samuel Pepys]”.

In terms of ‘common sense’, I am reminded of the spectrum of Dat>Information>Knowledge>Wisdom, where common sense is definitely on the ‘wisdom’ end of the spectrum, where the ability to subconsciously apply prior learnings to alternate abstract situations.

abasiel - 16/03/2018

Hi Steve – Thanks for making the first contribution to this discussion thread. I agree about a learning event falling on a spectrum, not just a ‘bi-polar’ e.g. good or bad experience. You might find some interest in my Spiral Learning Model in https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B5KEPSFKjo5OeWxIeGhYdWZOMzA/view Looking forward to meeting on Monday. – Anthony

21. abasiel - 10/02/2018

Welcome Conference Workshop Stakeholders. We look forward to your contribution to our pre-event discussion. – Anthony and John

22. Steve - 27/02/2015

Knowledge is the sum of all external data a person has absorbed, so I see it as a function of memory, I’m not sure, having thought about it for a day or so, I can find a distinction between memory and knowledge. Intellect is the tool that the individual uses to manage and use that data, the sum of both is intelligence.

So in this model, someone could have a great intellect with little knowledge, I would typify as a keen mind able to compensate through tools of their own devising to manage what they recognize as a weakness, As an side the specific person I have in mind as I write this is acutely dyslexic.

The flip of my proposition may be where it lets itself down as I can think of no examples(other than the irony of describing myself at this precise moment) of someone with a lot of information without the means to access it in a useful and timely way. I suppose that person would be highly educated but unable to leverage their knowledge to generate desired outcomes.

abasiel - 01/03/2015

Interesting Steve. This makes me wonder where ‘common sense’ fits into the picture?

23. Max - 25/02/2015

Knowledge is learning. Applying this leads to more efficient and smarter solutions to problems… Having no knowledge is like finding your way out a dark room blindfolded.

abasiel - 26/02/2015

Thanks Max – an interesting example. It makes me think about how learning is linked to our perception. Proprioception is a topic that was not addressed in our AR discussions. This may be a thread worth developing.

24. David Wood - 25/02/2015

Knowledge is information that people can use to improve their capability to solve problems, take decisions, and generally progress towards whatever their goals may be.

abasiel - 26/02/2015

So David – knowledge can only be driven by goals? What about serendipitous learning opportunities?

25. Peter O'Shaughnessy - 25/02/2015

I guess influenced by the constructivist theory, I tend to think of “knowledge” as the collection of mental models that you have built up for understanding the world around you.

abasiel - 26/02/2015

Thanks Peter – I like the introduction of ‘mental models’ to the discussion. Maybe you can expand this for us. I know it is used alot with Artificial Intelligence eLearning design. I can see an AR Tutor project forming 🙂

26. drjrm - 25/02/2015

As an engineer I usually find the word “knowledge” used to describe a mixture of memorised facts and experience of an application domain…e.g. if I hear that someone has knowledge of the embedded computing industry it probably means they know facts about the technology and market, and have some experience working there. This may not always equate to skill level for any particular task.

abasiel - 26/02/2015

Thanks for this contribution. The ‘Skills’ and ‘knowledge’ issue is an interesting debate. How do you see the link to an engineer’s prior knowledge?

27. PAUL BREEN - 25/02/2015

The boundaries of knowledge are constantly shifting especially in this digital age, though many of the skills that we use to process and then produce and share that knowledge are inherently the same. I have done a lot of research these past few years into teacher knowledge and how that develops over time. The specific focus of the research was in the use of technologies and so this has particular relevance to talking about virtual knowledge. I’d love to talk longer on this and maybe more coherently too but I am in the middle of a long teaching day. I do though hope to get back online later on.

abasiel - 25/02/2015

Hi Paul. I agree that the tech will change over time, so it can not be the driver to eLearning design.

28. mckeeman - 25/02/2015

Knowledge in the field of broadcast & marketing is an interconnection of various factors which are gradually accrued over time.

This includes knowledge of –
Brand messaging – What advertising agencies and their clients might expect in a successful production.
Technology – How cameras, post production tools, broadcast or distribution tools create (and limit) possibilities.
Creativity – Ingenuity and craftsmanship required to develop and deliver good ideas.

It is also an ongoing process of discovering new ideas, tools and processes combined with a widening circle of contacts and influence.

29. David Ross - 25/02/2015

David Ross

Great question, as they say on Bloomberg News. From a different vantage point, my music management logo ‘ Invisiblemeans ‘ symbolizes; when it comes to achieving success, Nothing Happens By Accident ‘. ( That is my knowledge ) . Personal experience leads to knowledge, personal intellect leads to learning from experience. You expand your knowledge by reading, being curious, conversation, travelling and so on. The intelligence to analyse knowledge leads to wisdom. I am totally excited how our ability to gain knowledge in the digital age adds a massive dynamic to what we know and what we don’t know.

abasiel - 25/02/2015

Thanks David. Any good researcher (professional or life-long learner) identifies the gaps in knowledge and then innovates or creates unique solutions.

30. Adam - 25/02/2015

I think that knowledge is a mapping between what is and what one understands about what is, assuming that there is an objective reality.
In terms of the knowledge/skills discussion, I don’t think it’s that black and white. If you define knowledge to be only that which is conscious, i.e. “I know that if I turn this bike then it will go that way”, rather than also subconscious, i.e. “I know that by making all these muscle movements that the bike will stay upright” (says the brain subconsciously), then you can have skills based on conscious knowledge as well as those based on unconscious “knowledge” (which we aren’t calling knowledge). You can have a skill such as programming where you have to think such a thing as “I need that to go there and do that so I get this output”, along with the skill of touch typing, which is all motor memory.
So some skills are knowledge based whereas some are not. I don’t think one is “better” than the other, they serve their own purposes. In terms of VR and AR there’s a use for both, as has been said. There’s the knowledge gained by, say, walking around a forest and seeing information on the plant and animal species, or the skills gained by, say, playing a flight simulator and developing the reflexes to look at and interact with certain controls at certain times.

abasiel - 25/02/2015

Thanks for your contribution Adam. This makes me think about the ‘Constructivist view of knowledge’. It does not exist ‘out there’ but is created within the mind of the learner.

In my research I use the term ‘fuzzy facts’ as a way to highlight the transitory nature of knowledge.

31. Ken Blakeslee - 25/02/2015

Don’t confuse knowledge and expertise with Insight. Knowledge is the basis for insight, but not all knowledgeable people can take it to the next step.

abasiel - 25/02/2015

I like this perspective Ken. What is the value of knowledge if it can not be applied? Common sense is a benchmark.

32. Andy Fawkes - 25/02/2015

knowledge prepares one to face the challenges and opportunities of the future

abasiel - 25/02/2015

Nice Andy – It is a circle, no? And from the opportunities we continue to grow and learn. A kind of learning cycle.

33. Rick Chandler - 25/02/2015

Knowledge is part of the continuum
Fact knowledge wisdom power.

Like the old tomato cliche. It is a fact that a tomato is a fruit part of collective knowledge on food. Wisdom tells me that I don’t put it in a fruit salad and therefore power over those that don’t use knowledge wisely.

abasiel - 25/02/2015

I like your introduction to wisdom….When do we become wise?

34. hergonan - 25/02/2015

To me, knowledge is the collection of skills, experience, stories and tricks that one has learned.

abasiel - 25/02/2015

But are skills a lower form of knowledge?

35. Jesse Sallis - 23/02/2015

I would say, knowledge is anything and everything I did not know before I could understand what knowing was. It derives from my past experiences and has the ability influence future events. Knowledge is power. Nothing more, nothing less.

abasiel - 24/02/2015

Hi Jessee – Thanks. But what about identifying the gaps in your knowledge? Will you have more power if you can see what you need to learn next?

36. Mark Childs - 23/02/2015

I’d say all knowledge is virtual knowledge, in that anything we know is a map of reality, rather than reality itself. This might seem to be an obscure point, but actually I’ve noticed an influence on educators’ ontological leanings in the readiness with which they accept something like virtual worlds – those with the view that there really is an objective external reality tend to see virtual worlds as somehow inauthentic because they perceive them as somehow more fake than the real world, People with a bit more of a postmodernist perspective tend to be more accepting of education in a virtual world as simply one more of a set of subjective views of reality.

As far as AR goes, I think this opens up some areas of disquiet for some people. If you’re tagging the physical world with a layer of additional information, some people might be OK with the subjective nature of this (they’re aware that reality is filtered by a whole set of connotations, experiences – Barthes 101 really – so can handle any perceived mismatch) whereas others will be very unhappy that somehow this “knowledge” that is being applied to “reality” isn’t the same as how they see it, and so is “wrong”.

abasiel - 23/02/2015

Interesting Mark. Perception seems to be a key component to this analysis.

37. Cathy Basiel - 23/02/2015

Skills’ poor relation! (although the Conservative government have somewhat reversed the hierarchy, rating knowledge higher than skills.)

Holt said it best when he ascertained ‘Since we can’t know what knowledge will be most needed in the future, it is senseless to try to teach it in advance. Instead, we should try to turn out people who love learning so much and learn so well that they will be able to learn whatever needs to be learned.’ (I’m interpreting this as a vote for skills over and above knowledge, which changes day by day.)

Yes. =)

abasiel - 23/02/2015

Thanks Cathy. So knowledge is transitory? But skill will endure.

38. Anthony 'Skip' Basiel - 21/02/2015

Thanks Sanyasde for being our thought leader (first to reply) in this discussion.

39. James Hogan - 21/02/2015

I think the use of AR/VR is about knowledge acquisition in terms of academic education but more about skills development in professional training.

Anthony 'Skip' Basiel - 21/02/2015

Interesting James. I have researched competency-based learning in the past for an EC project. Which comes first – skills or knowledge, and is one ‘better’ than the other? – Cheers, Skip

James Hogan - 21/02/2015

Hi Skip,

I normally refer to a knowledge hierarchy (i.e. data > information > knowledge > expertise) but make a distinction between knowledge and skills – although the two are highly inter-related.

The difference I was really driving at though was professional versus academic learning. Training and development versus teaching and education perhaps.

For example, from initiatives that I’ve been involved in; you could look at the use of VR to train the police to investigate digital crime and the use of AR to train mechanics to repair jet fighter planes on the one hand and the use of VR to teach primary schools children about the history of UK parliament and the monarchy and AR to teach undergraduate students about human anatomy and bio-mechanics.

Kind regards, James

40. Sanyaade Adekoya - 21/02/2015

understanding, exposure, learning, teaching, knowing, acquire, interaction with, development, informed, impact, transferred, opinionated, persuasive, inquiry, investigate, etc…

If all of the above can take place then knowledge is attained

Please email abasiel@gmail.com with any questions.

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